This Is How America Dealt With Violent Fascists In Post-War Japan

Hideki Tojo, prime minister of Japan from 1941 to 1944, takes the stand at the Tokyo Tribunals. Public domain, from the US National Archives.
Emperor Hirohito and General MacArthur meet for the first time at the U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, 27 September 1945. Public domain, property of US government.
Surgeon General Ishii Shirō, director of the notorious Unit 731, where human experiments were conducted on prisoners during the Second World War. Public domain, copyright expired.
  1. Fill the airwaves with denunciations of fascism while doing everything possible within the law to undermine the ability of fascists to disseminate calls to violence.
  2. Gradually allow former fascists to re-enter public life on the condition that they leave fascism behind and accept the constitutional basis of democracy. Permanently exclude those who hang on to seditious intent.


  1. Timothy Brook, ‘The Tokyo Judgement and the Rape of Nanking,’ The Journal of Asian Studies, 60 (2001), pp. 673–700.
  2. Yuki Tanaka, Japan’s Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution During World War II and the US Occupation, (London: Routledge, 2010).
  3. Jing Bao Nie et al [eds.], Japan’s Wartime Medical Atrocities: Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics, (London: Routledge, 2010).
  4. Yuki Tanaka, Hidden Horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War II, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1996), pp. 2–3.
  5. Conrad Totman, Early Modern Japan, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), p. 550.
  6. Quoted in John Dower, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War, (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1986) p. 46.
  7. Carl J. Friedrich, ‘Military Government as a Step Toward Self-Rule,’ Public Opinion Quarterly, 7 (1943), pp. 528–9.
  8. Carl J. Friedrich [ed.], American Experiences in Military Government in World War II, (New York: Rinehart, 1948), p. v.
  9. United States War Department, Field Manual 27–5, United States Army and Navy Manual of Military Government and Civil Affairs, 22 December 1943, pp. 6–13.
  10. Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan, (Cambridge [MA]: Harvard University Press, 2005), p. 244.
  11. Charles Willoughby and John Chamberlain, MacArthur: 1941–1951, Victory in the Pacific, (London: William Heinemann, 1956), p. 282.
  12. Douglas MacArthur, Reminiscences, (London: Heinemann, 1965), p. 282.
  13. State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee, U.S. Initial Post-Surrender Policy for Japan, 6 September 1945, Part I.
  14. Alex Gibney, A. ‘Six Days to Reinvent Japan,’ The Wilson Quarterly, 20 (1996), p. 75.
  15. John Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II, (London: Penguin, 1999), pp. 360–9.
  16. MacArthur, Reminiscences, p. 301.
  17. Marius B. Jansen, The Making of Modern Japan, (London: The Belknap Press, 2000), p. 673.
  18. David M. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 851.
  19. Herbert P. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, (London: HarperCollins, 2000), p. 498.
  20. Ibid, p. 561.
  21. Jansen, Modern Japan, pp. 672–7.
  22. Howard B. Schonberger, Aftermath of War: Americans and the Remaking of Japan, 1945–1952, (London: Kent State University Press, 1989), p. 39.

Historian of modern Britain, popular culture, and queer identities. PhD student, trans activist, and Quaker from South Wales. She/her pronouns.

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